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事件域认知模型视角下的英语动词名物化研究

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本文是一篇硕士英语论文,英语由古代从丹麦等斯堪的纳维亚半岛以及德国、荷兰及周边移民至不列颠群岛的盎格鲁、撒克逊以及朱特部落的白人所说的语言演变而来,并通过英国的殖民活动传播到了世界各地。(以上内容来自百度百科)今天为大家推荐一篇硕士英语论文,供大家参考。
 
Chapter One Introduction
 
Verbal nominalization, as a characteristic linguistic phenomenon in English, hasattracted plenty of attention from linguists of different approaches at home and abroad.Although numerous studies on the phenomenon have been carried out and plentifulachievements have been achieved, there are still some problems that are not interpretedsystematically and comprehensively. In view of that, the present thesis takes previousstudies as bases and endeavors to further explore verbal nominalization within theframework of Event-domain Cognitive Model by employing construal operations andcognitive theories. This thesis assumes that different representation ways of verbalnominalization are in a continuum. It aims to look into the process of semantic profilingand derivation of nominals and manages to generalize semantic characteristics ofnominals converted under different means of realization. To some extent, the cognitivestudy is of significance in both theory and practice. Theoretically, it reveals the essenceof verbal nominalization. Practically, it casts light on the process of semantic changes inthe phenomenon and thus provides implications for English teaching and learning. Thischapter consists of six parts, namely background of the study, purpose and significanceof the study, research questions, research methods, organization of the thesis andinnovation of the thesis.
 
1.1 Background of the Study
There is a long history of nominalization study abroad and the real study beginswith Jespersen(1924) who first incorporates nominalization into linguistic research.Following Jespersen’s step, linguists of four mainstream schools start to study thephenomenon in succession. Structuralist school merely describes and analyzes thesurface structure of nominalization by means of structuralism, but they do not mentionmeaning and function of nominal in the structure. Transformational-generative schoolmakes a relatively explicit classification of nominalization forms, but they considernominalization as changes in syntactic structure, which neglects the relation betweennominalization and context. Systemic-functional school interprets nominalization fromthe perspective of grammatical metaphor, which makes the study systematic and thorough. However, they can not reveal the essence of the phenomenon for their studiesare confined to language system. Cognitive school reckon that nominalization is theresult of conceptual reification. The classification of nominalization made byLangacker(1987) in Foundations of Cognitive Grammar is seen as the foundation ofcognitive study on nominalization. Among all the studies that have been carried out,cognitive ones have a unique effect in interpreting nominalization for they propose theirown insight into the phenomenon from the perspective of embodiment and cognition.They promote the study of nominalization to an unprecedented height.The studies on nominalization made abroad have provided bases and guidance forthe studies at home. They are of great significance for Chinese scholars to studynominalization. Domestic studies on English nominalization are carried out bytransformational-generative, systemic-functional and cognitive schools. Among them,cognitive studies are larger in both number and achievement. Relatively influentialstudies are mainly conducted from perspectives of cognitive semantics, cognitivegrammar, cognitive-function and contrastive study.
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1.2 Purpose and Significance of the Study
Human beings conceptualize the world into entities and relations based on domainsof space and time as well as interaction with the reality. Entities occupying certain spaceare represented by nouns and relations extending in time are represented by verbs. Verbs and nouns constitute core word classes in English. Verbal nominalization, as amanifestation of dynamic changes between these two word classes, has always been thefocus of researchers. In the process of nominalization, verbs are converted into nominalswhich retain some or no features of verb category and obtain some or all features ofnoun category. Meanwhile, dynamic actions represented by verbs are converted intostatic entities. The present study endeavors to construe semantic profiling and derivationof nominals in verbal nominalization which is realized by different means and probeinto the semantic characteristics of different types of nominals from the perspective ofcognition.The present study has certain significance in both theory and practice.Theoretically, it reveals the essence of verbal nominalization as well as expands the theapplication scope of Event-domain Cognitive Model. According to this study, theessence of verbal nominalization in which actions are gradually reified as entities is thespatialization of actions. Event-domain Cognitive Model, which is characterized byembodiment, can better interpret the metonymic mechanism in verbal nominalization.An event-domain evoked by a verb covers the action and its relevant elements involvedin the event. These elements primarily refer to the agent, the patient, the result, theinstrument, the manner, the time, the location, etc. When one of the elements isrepresented by nominal converted from the verb which represents the action, theelement is profiled for it bears part-whole relationship with the action. Thus themetonymic mechanism in verbal nominalization is easily revealed and the mechanism istherefore not the focus of this study. Practically, the findings of the study will throwlight on verbal nominalization and thus contribute to English teaching and learning. Toput it specific, verbal nominalization is a cognitive process in which an action isgradually converted into an entity that is related to the action. Firstly, verbs representingbasic actions of human beings are generally nominalized by zero-derivation.Zero-derivation nominals typically designate certain aspect of actions represented byverbs. Secondly, most verbs are nominalized by means of derivation to represent variousrelations in which different entities are existent. Derivational nominals may refer to thereified action or the result, the instrument, the manner, etc. of an action. 
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Chapter Two Literature Review
 
Verbal nominalization, as the most common and important nominalizationphenomenon in English, attracts much attention from mainstream linguistic schools andbecomes the focus of nominalization study. This chapter reviews and analyzes existingstudies on English verbal nominalization as well as introduces the history and status ofits related studies. All previous studies provide both background and bases for theresearch questions presented in this thesis.
 
2.1 Studies on English Verbal NominalizationAbroad
There has been a long history of study on English nominalization. The earlieststudy dates back to ancient Greece period when philosopher Plato was aware of theconversion between Subject and Predicate. But the real study of nominalization startswith Jespersen (1924) who puts forward nexus-substantive which includes verbalnexus-word and predicative nexus-word. Following Jespersen, scholars of differentlinguistic schools discuss the properties, structure, generative mechanism, function andother aspects of nominalization as well as verbal nominalization (Qu Yingmei, 2009).Frederick J. Newmeyer (1998:96) divides the explanations of language phenomenainto two types. One is internal explanation and the other is external explanation. Internalone refers to the interpretation of language structures deduced from a certain grammartheory. External one refers to the interpretation of language facts dominated by the rulesoutside grammar. It is most appropriate to apply these two distinctions to the methodsadopted in previous studies of nominalization. In general, the studies after Jespersen canbe summarized into internal approach and external approach. Internal approach studiesthe composition of verbal nominalization taking the internal structure of form orinternal syntactic relations as its starting point. It is employed by structuralist andtransformational-generative schools. External approach studies cognitive mechanism ofverbal nominalization and its effect in language use taking nominal structure as itsstarting point. It is adopted by functional and cognitive schools.
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2.2 Studies on English Verbal Nominalization at Home
The achievements of nominalization study made abroad have provided theoreticalbasis and guidance for the study at home. They are of great significance for Chinesescholars to study verbal nominalization following the early studies. Domestic researchon English nominalization has been carried out since the 1980s. Before 2000,transformational-generative approach occupies the mainstream of discussion onnominalization. Systemic-Functional approach and cognitive approach begin to payclose attention to nominalization phenomenon until 2001. Among the researches carriedout by them, there are also some relatively influential ones which are listed and introduced as follows.
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Chapter Three Theoretical Bases...........19
3.1 Definition of English Verbal Nominalization.............19
3.2 Means of Realization of English Verbal Nominalization.....19
3.3 Classification of English Verbs.....20
3.4 Event-domain Cognitive Model............. 20
3.5 Construal Operations..........23
3.5.1 Profiling..........23
3.5.2 Mental Scanning.......24
3.6 Metonymy and Metaphor within Cognitive Linguistics.......24
Chapter FourAn ECM-based Study of English Verbal Nominalization........26
4.1 Nominalization of Behavioral Verbs...... 26
4.2 Nominalization of Mental Verbs.............53
4.3 Non-finite Forms of Behavioral Verbs and Mental Verbs....60
4.4 Implications for English Teaching and Learning........65
Chapter Five Conclusion.....67
5.1 Major Findings of the Study.........67
5.2 Limitations of the Study.....69
5.3 Suggestions for Future Study....... 69
 
Chapter Four An ECM-based Study of English Verbal Nominalization
 
ng, refers to a cognitive process in which an action is reconstrued as an entity thatis related to the action. Linguistically, it is a dynamic transcategorization fromgrammatical category of verb to noun, during which the nominals will retain some or nofeatures of verbs and obtain some or all features of nouns. This chapter, the core of thethesis, is arranged into four parts. The former three is devoted to look into thenominalization of behavioral verbs and mental verbs, which are carried out bypresenting construals on English verbal nominalization under different means ofrealization and probing into the semantic characteristics of different types of nominals.The last one puts forward implications of the study for English teaching and learning.
 
4.1 Nominalization of Behavioral Verbs
Behavioral verbs express behaviors or operations of human, which includeconcrete actions and abstract actions, such as hit, employ, etc. But the objective of theaction must be an entity animate or inanimate. Any behavioral process must have oneparticipant called agent. In many cases, there are also the second participant calledpatient. Sometimes there are other elements, such as the result, the instrument, themanner, the time and the location in an event evoked by a verb. Thus an event embracesan action and elements that are intimately interrelated with the action. As people havethe ability to construe the same event, which extends in both time domain and spacedomain, from different perspectives, they may have different representations of thesituation. Besides the most important action, each of the elements also has a potentialityto be profiled. In English, verbal nominalization can realize the representation of thereified action and other elements in an event. Next we will analyze some examples ofnominalization of behavioral verbs and try to explore their semantic extractioncombining construal operations and cognitive theories.
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Conclusion
 
Within the framework of Event-domain Cognitive Model, the thesis devotes tostudy verbal nominalization combing construal operations and cognitive theories. Thestudy seeks to conduct cognitive construals on the process of semantic profiling andderivation which behavioral verbs and mental verbs have undergone in nominalizationand endeavors to probe into the semantic characteristics of different types of nominals.This chapter attends to summarize major findings and limitations of the present study.And based on the limitations, we put forward some suggestions for future study.The thesis classifies common English verbs into behavioral verbs and mental verbswhose core function is to represent how human’s primary activities are converted bothfrom dynamic to static and from actions to entities. The biggest advantage of theconversion is characterized by providing the most effective and economic ways for therepresentation of both dynamic and static situations. If people view an action extendingin time by sequential scanning, the situation will be represented by various tensed verbwhich profiles temporality of the event. If the event is viewed by summary scanningwhich weakens the temporality as background, the situation will be represented bynominal expression which profiles integrity of the event. Thus the concepts related tothe verb are compressed into nouns or non-finite forms of the verb. Once an action isreified as an entity, we can present the dynamic action in the way of describing staticentity. Linguistically, when a verb is nominalized, various operations, which mayinclude number, case and attribute, can be made on the nominals. To make it morespecific, major findings of the study are listed as follows.
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References (abbreviated)
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