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图式理论指导下英语听力教学在大专英语专业中的应用

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本文是一篇硕士英语论文,英语教学是指对于英语是或者不是第一语言的人进行教授英语的过程。 英语教学涉及多种专业理论知识,包括语言学、第二语言习得、词汇学、句法学、文体学、语料库理论、认知心理学等内容。(以上内容来自百度百科)今天为大家推荐一篇硕士英语论文,供大家参考。
 
Chapter One Introduction
 
1.1 Background Information of the Study
With the development of China’ s education methods, Chinese people have experiencedvarious kinds of teaching ways, such as a method about military education in the Xia Dynastyand a method about the religious education-throughout China’s feudal period. After the twoopium wars, China changed from a feudal period into a semi-colonial and semi-feudal state.Then, with the invasion of the Western colonial powers, English began to spread in China. Upto now, English has been learned for over hundreds of years and has become the requiredcourse for all the students in China. In the period of the Republic of China, English teachinggot a better development despite the turbulence times of the country (Zhang Chen: 58-64).Nowadays, people all benefit a lot from the significance of English. To be honest, languagelearning contains two parts: the input and output of the language. While in people’ s dailycommunication, learners usually get most inputs of the language by listening.Before 1990s, our country pays more attention to the English teaching in junior college.After that time, our country turns her attentiveness on the undergraduate education. And thereare no enough studies on junior college’ English listening, let alone the study which givespriority to English major.Generally speaking, there are some negative effects on English listening teaching injunior college. Firstly, the teaching methods are very old, and the teaching facilities areout-of-date. In today’s junior college, they simply follow the “three steps”: “read thewords---play the records---check the answers”. Both students and teachers have less interestin the English listening class. Students have no enthusiasm about English listening, and teachers have few creative ideas for the improvement of the listening teaching, all of thesewill directly bring about the worst teaching efficiency. In some junior colleges, students donot have enough phonetic classrooms or speech ciphering equipment to practice their listeningskills. And which made the teacher has less choice to design the procedures in Englishlistening teaching. So in that way, students could not reap lots of knowledge in listening.Secondly, in today’s junior college, students can not master the basic knowledge of Englishlistening learning. They have bad habits and less attention in English listening comprehension.In Henan province, the College Entrance Examination does not put the test of the Englishlistening into the account of the total score, which makes students overlook the importance ofthe listening. Thirdly, the teachers’English listening teaching concepts are relatively outdated.Part of the local colleges’ English teachers are still restricted in College English TeachingSyllabus which tells that students only need to master some certain vocabulary and takereading learning as a key task. So the teachers ignore the listening part, and even try to turn alistening class into a reading class by explaining the meaning of the words and the listeningmaterials, rather than giving students time and chances to practice the listening and speakingskills for their further learning.
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1.2 Significance of the Study
The significance of this study can be found from the following three aspects.First of all, it totally conforms to the demand of the college English teaching purpose.This purpose was put forward by the junior college in order to meet the graduates’desirability,which is learned to use the language not for the text. The English curriculum requires thatstudents should understand the English Immersion teaching method which is a helpfulteaching instruction in English, and English is frequently used in daily life or in some generaltheme lectures. It also allows students to comprehend the slow and clear English radios and TV shows, catch the central idea and key points, and use some basic listening strategies to getthe deeper comprehension about the listening materials.Secondly, the importance of this study can be found theoretically. This paper reflects theeffect of the Schema Theory in English Major’s English listening class in Junior College. Theauthor sticks to prove the Schema Theory’s function may bring in students’ English listening.Schema Theory is seldom used in English listening, and after this research, the result and datacan also be used in the further studies.Thirdly, the significance of this study can also be found practically. The English Major’students in Junior College do not have the proper methods to learn and to use the English intheoretical basis, therefore a practical learning strategy for English is urgently needed forthem. They hope to switch the dumb English to the practical English. Their desire for theEnglish’s utility is higher than anyone else. So they hope to learn something that they canactually use rather than just do the reading comprehension in classroom.
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Chapter Two Literature Review
 
2.1 Previous Research on English Listening Teaching
AbroadListening is one of the five basic skills in English learning and using procedure, so it isessential that in English listening, a practical and valid method can be found and taught. Athome and abroad, lots of scholars have already done too many researches on English listeningteaching.The flipped classroom also named as inverted classroom, and it was a new kind ofteaching method which was mentioned by Maureen Lage, Glenn Platt and Michael Treglia in“ Inverting the Classroom: A Gateway to Creating an Inclusive Learning Environment” in2000. At the same year, J. Wesley Baker defined the flipped classroom as “using web coursemanagement tools to become the guide by the side”. After this, they began a more challengingattempt that to change the teaching method into the way based on the students watching videoand listening to the explanation. While under this kind of teaching model, teachers’major taskis to help students to solve problems and give students a hand when they meet difficultiesduring the experimental. It provided a new teaching style namely “learning first out of class,practicing second in class”.
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2.2 Previous Research on English Listening TeachingAt Home
The behaviorist learning theory is also called stimulus-response theory which aimed atstudy the observable or measured behavior about students. This theory was promoted by JohnH. Watson in 1913. The researchers suppose the behavior is the learners’ response which isstimulate by the surroundings. It asked teachers and schools to learn the way about how toshape and correct the students’behavior, and created a circumstance for students to strengthentheir proper behavior and eliminate the inappropriate behavior.In the behaviorist learning theory, the theory of classical conditioning is the mostcommon used learning theory which proved the higher nervous activity theory. In Englishlearn, it actually means the relationship between the new and old knowledge (Zhang Xiaoyingand Li Tianxian, 2002). For example, when students hear some new words during thelistening training, teachers can show them some pictures or some radio to let students feel thepronunciation and keep stimuli by using the real things or places. After many times ofpracticing, students may remember the word when hearing or watching it.The behaviorist learning theory stressed the learning circumstance and required thereality about the condition in the learning circumstance. So the teaching activity is theprocedure that is about the teacher and students to provide and accept the stimulation.However, it also has some shortcomings, for example in the behaviorist learning theory, it hashighly request on students’ personal ability and associative ability which is happen to be theshortages of students in current situation. On the other hand, the order of this teaching modelask teacher to teach every student step by step, that is to say the teacher should give studentsvarious kinds of tests after solving problems to make sure they completely understand andalso remain flexibility in their using, and if some one could not handle that problem, teachersshould go back to that question until they completely understand. 
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Chapter Three Theoretical Framework.....15
3.1 Schema Theory......... 15
3.2 Types of Schema.......18
3.3 Functions of Schema in English Listening............19
Chapter Four Research Design..........21
4.1 Research Hypotheses.........21
4.2 Research Subjects.....22
4.3 Research Instruments.........23
4.4 Research Procedures..........26
4.5ASample Teaching Plan in EC............32
Chapter Five DataAnalysis and Discussion.......37
5.1Analysis of the Results of the Questionnaires........37
5.2Analysis of the Results of the Tests..... 47
5.3Analysis of the Results of the Interview.......52
 
Chapter Five DataAnalysis and Discussion
 
This chapter is about the analysis of the data collected and processed by the author, andthe SPSS is used while analyzing. The results of questionnaires, tests and interviews will beanalyzed and compared by the author and they can clearly illustrate the students’ learningcondition.Based on the analysis, the author has a clear view on the English listening. Thisexperiment is designed by the author and tries to find students’ attitudes toward Englishlearning. After the experiment, the author interviews the impression among the students. Atthe end of the chapter, the author concludes the achievements of this research and talks aboutwhether this study testifies the hypothesis or not.
 
5.1Analysis of the Results of the Questionnaires
After the experiment, the author got some answers from the questionnaires. The authortried to figure out the interest, confidence and problems during the English listening learning.According to the results of Q1, only 18.60% of the students in CC and11.36% of thestudents in EC give priority to English. What is a worse, lot of the students in these twoclasses do not understand the importance of English listening.In Q2, 11.63% of the students in CC and 6.82% of the students in CC think Englishlearning is really easy and simple. While most students in those two classes consider thatEnglish is a hard work for them.The results of Q3 show that 10.96% of the students in CC and 9.09% of the students inEC are enjoying in English listening. Nearly half of the students in those two classes have nointerest in English listening.The results of Q4 show that 6.98% of the students in CC and 4.55% of the students in EChave confidence in English listening learning. While 11.63% of the students in CC and13.63% of the students in EC nearly have no confidence in English listening learning.
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Conclusion
 
In this paper, the author uses the schema theory to analyze English listening teaching inKaifeng College. Based on the results of data analyzed in above chapters, the author finds thatthe Schema Theory in listening teaching has got remarkable achievement and the listeningpractice has significantly improved students’ listening comprehension ability. While there arestill some implications and deficiency in this paper and research. Besides, the author wouldalso propose some other suggestions for further studies in this chapter.In this research, the author preceded an experiment with the guidance of the SchemaTheory to English listening teaching in college and studied the present situations of thelistening comprehension. With the guidance of the schema-based teaching method, the wholelistening process is divided into three parts, as motivating students’ existing schemata phase,building up new listening schema phase to mix and perfect application with the schema phase.In these three steps, both teacher and students have different tasks. There are some problemsexisting in students’ listening learning in college which need to be solved with the help of theschema-based listening teaching approach. Here comes the major finding:
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